Step One: Choose a thesis about a work of literature that is too obvious to be worth arguing. (Example: “In the Iliad, Homer portrays Achilles as angry.”)
Step Two: Overlook numerous compelling examples in support of your alleged thesis. (Example: almost everything Achilles says or does in the epic.)
Step Three: Quote instead a couple of passages – possibly the only ones in the whole work – that don’t fit your topic at all and present them as evidence. (Example: to prove that Achilles is angry, quote Achilles cheerfully welcoming ambassadors to dinner or calmly ending an argument between competitors in the funeral games for Patroclus.)
Step Four: Astonishingly fail to prove the obvious.
It’s a kind of magic.